quarta-feira, 22 de fevereiro de 2017

Microbial ecology and "the co-evolutionary relationship between microbiota and the human host"

"Microbiologist René J. Dubos (1901–1982) was an early pioneer in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) construct. In the 1960s, he conducted groundbreaking research concerning the ways in which early-life experience with nutrition, microbiota, stress, and other environmental variables could influence later-life health outcomes. He recognized the co-evolutionary relationship between microbiota and the human host. 

Almost 2 decades before the hygiene hypothesis, he suggested that children in developed nations were becoming too sanitized (vs. our ancestral past) and that scientists should determine whether the childhood environment should be “dirtied up in a controlled manner.” He also argued that oft-celebrated growth chart increases via changes in the global food supply and dietary patterns should not be equated to quality of life and mental health. Here in the second part of our review, we reflect the words of Dubos off contemporary research findings in the areas of diet, the gut-brain-axis (microbiota and anxiety and depression) and microbial ecology. Finally, we argue, as Dubos did 40 years ago, that researchers should more closely examine the relevancy of silo-sequestered, reductionist findings in the larger picture of human quality of life. In the context of global climate change and the epidemiological transition, an allergy epidemic and psychosocial stress, our review suggests that discussions of natural environments, urbanization, biodiversity, microbiota, nutrition, and mental health, are often one in the same.
It is very unlikely that Dubos would be surprised with the recent discoveries indicating that microbes extend a massive reach: from atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation, to mate selection and the remarkable ways in which plants and soil microbes interact to determine growth characteristics and even insect feeding behaviors upon the plant, microbes matter.
Had he lived long enough to see the dismantling of common myths, such as those which presumed bodily compartments (such as the female womb during pregnancy) are sterile, that the vascular endothelium and subepidermal regions are sterile in healthy adults, or that soil/water-derived microbes cannot be found in the brain in the absence of significant immunosupression and/or tissue destruction, he probably would not be surprised. Dubos was cognizant of the connection, although the microbial contribution to general ecology has been historically and grossly overlooked"

in Journal of Physiological Anthropology
"Natural environments, ancestral diets, and microbial ecology: is there a modern “paleo-deficit disorder”? Part II"
by Alan C Logan, Martin A Katzman and Vicent Balanzá-Martínez


"A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms  found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. 

A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and viruses. Microbiota have been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host.

The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves.

The microbiome and host emerged during evolution as a synergistic unit from epigenetics and genomic characteristics, sometimes collectively referred to as a holobiont." *

(*from wikipedia)

Timeline: from single-celled life to eukaryotes to the emergence of the earliest humans:


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